[meteorite-list] Contact! - OT - ish

From: mark ford <markf_at_meteoritecentral.com>
Date: Wed Feb 1 09:39:10 2006
Message-ID: <6CE3EEEFE92F4B4085B0E086B2941B3145BAA8_at_s-southern01.s-southern.com>

As the list is quiet at the moment:

The drake equation:

N = N* fp ne fl fi fc Fl (The Drake Equation)

N* represents the number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy
fp is the fraction of stars that have planets around them
ne is the number of planets per star that are capable of sustaining life

fl is the fraction of planets in ne where life evolves
fi is the fraction of fl where intelligent life evolves
fc is the fraction of fi that communicate
fL is fraction of the planet's life during which the communicating
civilizations live.

I rekon :

N* = 100 Billion
fp = 60%
ne = 0.33
fl = 10%
fi = 5%
fc = 10%
fL = 1000 years

:. N*= 1 - Therefore we are alone!

Changing fp only makes a couple more planets in billions of stars across
billions of light years. That's why ET isn't knocking at our door.

... Hang on got to go someone's at the door


-----Original Message-----
From: meteorite-list-bounces_at_meteoritecentral.com
[mailto:meteorite-list-bounces_at_meteoritecentral.com] On Behalf Of mark
Sent: Wednesday, February 01, 2006 2:22 PM
To: meteorite-list_at_meteoritecentral.com
Subject: RE: [meteorite-list] Contact!

Indeed, but if you alter the number of planet forming stars by a factor
of two of three (which this research would suggest) you still only end
up with a couple extra possible alien worlds and the chances of them
being within comms range = really not a lot!



Mark Ford

-----Original Message-----
From: meteorite-list-bounces_at_meteoritecentral.com
[mailto:meteorite-list-bounces_at_meteoritecentral.com] On Behalf Of Pete
Sent: Wednesday, February 01, 2006 10:45 AM
To: meteorite-list_at_meteoritecentral.com
Subject: [meteorite-list] Contact!

This will surely change the Drake Equation!



Most Milky Way Stars Are Single

Release No.: 06-11
For Release: Monday, January 30, 2006
Note to editors: An image to accompany this release is online at

Cambridge, MA - Common wisdom among astronomers holds that most star
in the Milky Way are multiple, consisting of two or more stars in orbit
around each other. Common wisdom is wrong. A new study by Charles Lada
the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) demonstrates that
star systems are made up of single stars. Since planets probably are
to form around single stars, planets also may be more common than

Astronomers have long known that massive, bright stars, including stars
the sun, are most often found to be in multiple star systems. This fact
to the notion that most stars in the universe are multiples. However,
recent studies targeted at low-mass stars have found that these fainter
objects rarely occur in multiple systems. Astronomers have known for
time that such low-mass stars, also known as red dwarfs or M stars, are
considerably more abundant in space than high-mass stars.

By combining these two facts, Lada came to the realization that most
systems in the Galaxy are composed of solitary red dwarfs.

"By assembling these pieces of the puzzle, the picture that emerged was
complete opposite of what most astronomers have believed," said Lada.

Among very massive stars, known as O- and B-type stars, 80 percent of
systems are thought to be multiple, but these very bright stars are
exceedingly rare. Slightly more than half of all the fainter, sun-like
are multiples. However, only about 25 percent of red dwarf stars have
companions. Combined with the fact that about 85 percent of all stars
exist in the Milky Way are red dwarfs, the inescapable conclusion is
upwards of two-thirds of all star systems in the Galaxy consist of
red dwarf stars.

The high frequency of lone stars suggests that most stars are single
the moment of their birth. If supported by further investigation, this
finding may increase the overall applicability of theories that explain
formation of single, sun-like stars. Correspondingly, other
theories that call for most or all stars to begin their lives in
multiple-star systems may be less relevant than previously thought.

"It's certainly possible for binary star systems to 'dissolve' into two
single stars through stellar encounters," said astronomer Frank Shu of
National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, who was not involved with this
discovery. "However, suggesting that mechanism as the dominant method of

single-star formation is unlikely to explain Lada's results."

Lada's finding implies that planets also may be more abundant than
astronomers realized. Planet formation is difficult in binary star
where gravitational forces disrupt protoplanetary disks. Although a few
planets have been found in binaries, they must orbit far from a close
pair, or hug one member of a wide binary system, in order to survive.
around single stars avoid gravitational disruption and therefore are
likely to form planets.

Interestingly, astronomers recently announced the discovery of a rocky
planet only five times more massive than Earth. This is the closest to
Earth-size world yet found, and it is in orbit around a single red dwarf


"This new planet may just be the tip of the iceberg," said Lada. "Red
may be a fertile new hunting ground for finding planets, including ones
similar in mass to the earth."

"There could be many planets around red dwarf stars," stated astronomer
Dimitar Sasselov of CfA. "It's all in the numbers, and single red dwarfs

clearly exist in great numbers."

"This discovery is particularly exciting because the habitable zone for
these stars - the region where a planet would be the right temperature
liquid water - is close to the star. Planets that are close to their
are easier to find. The first truly Earth-like planet we discover might
be a
world orbiting a red dwarf," added Sasselov.

This research has been submitted to The Astrophysical Journal Letters
publication and is available online at

Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for
Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian
Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA
scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin,
evolution and ultimate fate of the universe.

For more information, contact:

David A. Aguilar
Director of Public Affairs
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Christine Pulliam
Public Affairs Specialist
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Phone: 617-495-7463, Fax: 617-495-7016

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Received on Wed 01 Feb 2006 09:41:51 AM PST

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