[meteorite-list] India Puts First Interaplanetary Probe in Orbit At Mars (MOM)

From: Ron Baalke <baalke_at_meteoritecentral.com>
Date: Wed, 24 Sep 2014 09:22:31 -0700 (PDT)
Message-ID: <201409241622.s8OGMVON007403_at_zagami.jpl.nasa.gov>


India puts first interplanetary probe in orbit at Mars
September 23, 2014

India's first interplanetary mission went into orbit around Mars late
Tuesday, vaulting India into rarefied company among the countries that
have successfully sent a mission to the red planet.

Firing its main engine for 24 minutes, the Indian-built spacecraft autonomously
guided itself into orbit around Mars as engineers on Earth watched the
probe pass out of communications, a planned loss of signal as it moved
behind the red planet.

Right on time at 10:30 p.m. EDT (0230 GMT), officials at the mission's
control center in Bangalore broke into applause and leapt from their chairs
as telemetry from the spacecraft made it to the ground, confirming it
was in orbit.

"India has successfully reached Mars!" declared Indian prime minister
Narendra Modi, who watched the event from an observation gallery at the
Bangalore control center.

The Mars mission makes India the fourth entity to put a spacecraft into
orbit around Mars, following the United States, Russia and the European
Space Agency.

"We have gone beyond the boundaries of human enterprise and imagination,"
Modi said. "We have accurately navigated our spacecraft on a route known
to very few, and we have done it from a distance so large that it took
a command signal from us to reach it more than it takes sunlight to reach

The Mars Orbiter Mission -- known as MOM -- closed in on Mars after a
journey of 414 million miles since it departed Earth in November 2013
after blasting off on India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.

Mission control received signals from the MOM spacecraft 12 minutes after
the probe sent the updates, the time it takes for light waves to travel
the gulf of 139 million miles separating Earth and Mars.

The probe's main engine was supposed to slow down the MOM spacecraft by
2,457 mph, enough for Martian gravity to pull the satellite into orbit.

An update posted on the Indian Space Research Organization's Facebook
page said data from the craft indicated it performed the burn exactly
as planned.

"History has been created today," Modi said in remarks to the ISRO control
team. "We have dared to reach out into the unknown and have achieved the
near-impossible. I congratulate all ISRO scientists as well as all my
fellow Indians on this historic occasion."

The Mars Orbiter Mission was supposed to spiral into an orbit with a high
point nearly 50,000 miles from Mars. On the orbit's closest approach to
the red planet, the MOM spacecraft would fly at an altitude of just 263

The solar-powered spacecraft -- about the size of a compact car -- joins
six other missions operating at Mars.

NASA's Curiosity and Opportunity rovers are wheeling across the red planet's
dusty surface, and the U.S. space agency has three orbiters flying above
Mars -- Odyssey, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and the MAVEN atmospheric
research craft.

Europe's Mars Express mission has circled Mars since December 2003.

"ISRO joins a elite group of only three other agencies worldwide to have
successfully reached the red planet," Modi said. "India, in fact, is the
only country to have succeeded in its very first attempt. We put together
the spacecraft in record time, within a mere three years from first studying
its feasibility."

More than half of the world's attempts to send a craft to Mars have failed,
including Russia's most recent Mars mission in 2011 and Japan's Nozomi
spacecraft, which missed a chance to enter orbit at Mars in 1999.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory provided communications and navigation
support to mission controllers in India.

Scientists built five research instruments to fly to Mars on the Indian
orbiter, which officials said is primarily a technology demonstration

Now that the spacecraft is in orbit at Mars, attention will turn toward
scientific observations.

The mission carries about 33 pounds, or 15 kilograms, of scientific instrumentation
to gather data on the history of the Martian climate and the mineral make-up
of its surface.

The mission carries a color imaging camera to return medium-resolution
pictures of the Martian surface, a thermal infrared spectrometer to measure
the chemical composition of rocks and soils, and instruments to assess
the Mars atmosphere, including a methane detector.

Scientific assessments of methane in the Martian atmosphere have returned
mixed results.

Methane is a potential indicator of current microbial life on Mars, but
some types of geologic activity can also produce trace levels of the gas.

Modi said India developed the $72 million Mars Orbiter Mission at about
one-tenth the cost of NASA's $671 million MAVEN mission, which completed
its journey to the red planet with a flawless orbit insertion burn Sunday

India's low-budget Mars mission cost less than many Hollywood films, Modi
said, using the project as a demonstration of the Indian space program's
record of success despite modest means.

"Indians are a proud people," Modi said. "Despite our many limitations,
we aspire to success. The success of our space program is a shining symbol
of what we are capable of as a nation. Our spacecraft has been an example
of achievement. It inspires the rest of us to strive for excellence ourselves."

India's space program primarily focuses on funding satellites with earthly
applications, such as launch vehicles and satellites for communications,
navigation, and climate research.

The Mars Orbiter Mission is ISRO's second space exploration project, after
the Chandrayaan 1 probe launched into orbit around the moon in 2008.

India does not have another Mars probe in its plans, but engineers are
working on a lunar rover mission.
Received on Wed 24 Sep 2014 12:22:31 PM PDT

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